CELEB ENDORSEMENTS: Enhancing brand image or ruining it?


Branding is one of the most important aspects of marketing a product. Branding decisions take place before a product is launched in the market and also when a product needs to be reinvented. The logo, name, symbol, tag line, colour combination on the box are all very integral parts of Branding. Whenever a company is launching a new product, the idea behind it is to make the product more attractive and desirable to the buyers as compared to its competitors’ products. This can be achieved by obtaining a distinctive identity and tapping the uniqueness of their product. If a company does not aim at making their product unique, it is bound to get lost in a sea of “me too” products.

Today, use of celebrities as part of marketing strategy is a fairly common practice for major firms in supporting their brand image. For example if we choose a segment for sports products, public figures such as Shane Warne, Roger Federer, Michael Schumacher, Tiger Woods etc are associated with many different brands.

To enhance their brand’s public image, companies often employs celebrities as the face or ambassadors of their product to boost the sales and improve their standing in the market. A very good example of this is the way Adidas has been able to make a comeback in the sneaker market since the advent of its Yeezy collection which is designed by popular rapper, Kanye West. Nike was dominating the market up until 2010 with over 90% of the market but as of 2016, Adidas’s market share has gone up from 6-7% in 2010 to 30. Some people believe it is due to the design of the sneakers but the star power of Kanye West cannot be denied.

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It is because masses idolise celebrities and when they are assured that a popular name uses a product, it affects their perception about the quality and style of a product. Trustworthiness and reliability towards a company’s products is also improved. Wearing what a famous personality wears will never go out of fashion.

Celebrity endorsements can also lead to damaging a company’s brand name when a star who falls out of favour with the public as a result of a wrongdoing or negative publicity or a personal scandal (e.g. Lance Armstrong and Oscar Pistorius). (McMahon, 2016)

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Social media has been a major boost to celebrity endorsements. Many companies even pay up to US$10000 per tweet/post to celebrities who are active on networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram to promote their brand online. It is a great way to generate buzz about a new product launch. Nowadays celebrities are taking a proactive role in product development and marketing.

Celebrities have segmented them into different products and put their names to fashion collections or in case of chefs and kitchen appliances which reflects the particular styles or values of celebrity. Most of the charities and NGOs cultivate relationship with celebrities because of their ability to increase public awareness of their causes due to which it encourages more donations from the public. (Research, 2014)

Celebrity endorsements are inherently unstable as endorsers are people and people make mistakes, so it has certain risks such as consumers may be sceptical as they are not sure that a celebrity really uses the products they endorse? The cost of paying celebrity to endorse the product is also quite high and the company might lose this money if they do not get the desired benefits.

Celebrity endorsements are quite profitable as celebrities enhance brand equity and increase name recognition which is really important for launching a new product. This helps in getting the necessary awareness for that product among the customers. A celebrity can build brand credibility and bring a distinctive personality to a company’s brand name.




The Pokemon Go hype train


Pokemon Go has taken the world by storm and that is just putting it mildly. The online traffic and buzz it has created is a whole new level of insanity. Tweets about the gaming app have taken over tweets about the Brexit. But what made it the overnight success story?!
This is perhaps the perfect example of how to target market segments. What the developers of the app have done is to take the growing concept of augmented reality and apply it to the real world through the use of the most popular anime of the past 50 years.
The makers have targeted teens and young adults considering that these are the people who have watched the cartoon in their childhood and given them a chance to relive their childhood.
Let’s take a look at how it became a trendsetter and how the game boosted the concept of augmented reality.


BBC even made an infographic about the number of calories (or sweets) you can burn playing the game. Although this could be an independent research but it also turned out to be a marketing campaign since it taps into the health conscious segment of the society.


The games use an application that even people who don’t play games on their smartphones are familiar with: Global Positioning System (GPS), which eliminates another adoption barrier for new users.
Use what most everyone is already using, and introduce a layer of technology that won’t take them too far out of their comfort zone. This reduces adoption barriers especially during early launch, when gathering critical mass is essential for word-of-mouth or “buzz” marketing.
It may be playing into a generation that grew up watching the cartoon, but it would not have gotten as expansive a market as it did if it did not also tap into a powerful human urge for treasure hunting. Casting the Pokémon characters as treasure that people could hunt allowed Pokémon GO to capture a new market: people who may not care for Pokémon, but love geocaching.
Everyone is talking about the buying power of Millennials, but Pokemon Go really demonstrates the impact Millennials can have on the success of a product. 25-35-year-old account for the majority of Pokemon Go players, which isn’t too surprising considering Pokemon was originally released in 1995, and 90s nostalgia is huge right now with Millennials. Pokemon Go also taps into the traits that make the Millennial generation tick – obsession with mobile technology, socialization, community, and new experiences.
After attracting these various different market segments, there is the obvious bandwagon effect which is critical to the success of any business plan.
The Pokémon Go phenomenon is not only about adopting technology or using new, cutting-edge features; it is also about designing a sticky experience that is enabled by the ways customers are changing.
In her recent report, Julie Ask says, “Digital business professionals must ensure that the services their customer uses are simple and contextually relevant.” Julie notes that using augmented reality to connect with consumers in the long term will be successful “as long as the experience drives the immediacy, simplicity, and context that consumers need.” Business leaders must track how their customers’ attitudes, demands, and desires evolve in order to innovate with appropriate speed, engage customers in context, and win consumers’ hearts faster than they can say “Pikachu.”


Pokémon Go left Twitter in the dust. Now it’s gunning for SnapChat (and Google Maps!)
So what’s next? At its current rate of growth, Pokémon GO is on track to pass Snapchat within a couple of days on Android.
Plus, as unbelievable as it sounds, Pokémon GO Android could surpass Google Maps itself as the largest user of Alphabet’s mapping data.


It’s too soon to call Pokémon GO a home run for Niantic and Nintendo
Despite what Nintendo’s share price might suggest, it’s too early to declare Pokémon GO a win for the business. Nintendo have a minority stake in Pokémon GO, and will pocket just a small slice of the game’s profits.
History hasn’t always been kind to games that generate tremendous hype. Back in 2012, Draw Something consumed the public consciousness for a few weeks before its user numbers dropped like a stone. Nintendo’s last mobile game, Miitomo, met a similar fate, finding early success that was ultimately unsustainable.

Various reasons of the astronomical success of Pokemon Go have been explained HERE and how it can stand the test of time like other Applications (WhatsApp, SnapChat etc) is up to the level of innovation and how frequently the makers keep updating it.


1. Sharpencx. 2016. Consumer Behavior . [ONLINE] Available at: https://sharpencx.com/pokemon-go-consumer-behavior/. [Accessed 1 August 2016].
2. Smith, B. and Smith, B. (2016). Pokémon Go, augmented reality and the future of local marketing. [online] Search Engine Land. Available at: http://searchengineland.com/pokemon-go-augmented-reality-future-local-marketing-254015 [Accessed 1 Aug. 2016].
3. Splash Media. (2016). Healthcare Marketing and Pokémon GO Benefits. [online] Available at: https://splashmedia.com/digital-marketing-blog/healthcare-care-pokemon-go/ [Accessed 1 Aug. 2016].

4. Scott Bales. (2016). We’ve seen Pokemon GO Before – Scott Bales. [online] Available at: http://scottebales.com/weve-seen-pokemon-go/ [Accessed 1 Aug. 2016].

Existence and survival of BMW among the top fleet cluster.

Picture2.png BMW cluster is a German company and maker of vehicles and motorcycles. BMW cluster is the parent company of BMW, Mini-Cooper and Rolls Royce automobile brands. BMW employs over one million staff spread over forty countries. BMW Group has worldwide subsidiaries and have their plants installed in European nation, the UK, the USA, Egypt, China, Republic of South Africa, Brazil etc. Marketing planning and strategy forms the muse of the success of the BMW Group. BMW cluster believes in maintaining core values as technology, innovation, performance, quality, dependability, exclusivity and client satisfaction. The corporate slogans of BMW cluster in English are “The final Driving Machine” and “Sheer Driving Pleasure”. BMW adopts a promoting campaign of targeting its customers. The promoting strategy of BMW additionally consists of a robust advertising strategy. Western Canadian Robotics Society has been BMW’s agency since 1979 and have created an excellent complete image for BMW by advertising campaigns as well as celebrated personalities like, Tom Cruise, Kirsty Gallacher, Tom Wood etc. The brands of BMW embrace BMW, Mini Cooper and Rolls Royce. The 3 brands represent themselves and are of superlative excellence. All of them have nice innovation ability and therefore the customers feel the very pleasure of driving with excellence and simplicity.


Additionally, BMW’s business strategy is to keep up outstanding complete image among customers. Advertising strategy of BMW is additionally a reason for BMW’s great complete image. This complete image of BMW has been engineered by victimisation over three hundred color advertisements. BMW have told that all advertisements have remained consistent on the substance utilised in the cars themselves. The 3 brands of BMW family are:

BMW; completely focuses on one factor, “Sheer Driving Pleasure”.

MINI is different; extroverted, spontaneous and in each respect one thing out of the standard and ideal for a society that’s young and unconventional.

In 2003, Rolls Royce became a part of BMW Group and is one of the most fascinating and standard complete vehicle among customers, “the luxury motor automobile par excellence”. The evaluation strategy that the BMW cluster adopts relies on many key trends. One most significant trend of BMW is labelled as “premium-taxation”.

Premium-taxation trend of BMW causes polarisation of markets. This trend triggers the customers to demand and pay abundant higher costs for the perceived quality.


A research was conducted during which those who used BMW cars were asked regarding why was the selection of their cars as BMW. Questionnaires turned out to completely different standard for those who used BMW cars.

Almost all of the folks had one opinion in common regarding the corporate i.e. all of them feel a sense of safety and luxury whilst driving a BMW automobile. Moreover, the distinctive brands of BMW and its performance and quality were additionally the explanations why they most well-liked BMW automobiles over alternative premium car makers like Mercedes, Audi, Ford, Lexus and so on.

A SWOT analysis helps see the varied Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of the BMW Group.

Strong promoting strategy.

Customer acknowledgement and sturdy brand image of BMW Group.

Strong complete image i.e. BMW, Mini Cooper and Rolls Royce.

In every two to three years BMW introduces its recreate of cars i.e. constant innovation and technology.

There is associate degree increasing variety of duplicate spare components of BMW and Mini Cooper.

The producing prices of BMW cars are terribly high as compared to its competitors. This is often additionally a reason for prime evaluation of BMW cars.

There is a chance for BMW cluster to extend more innovation and technology in their automobiles thanks to increasing competition in car business.

BMW ought to additionally look to form new collaboration with alternative automobile makers i.e. introducing new brands.

BMW family ought to additionally look to provide cheaper cars by new innovation and technology growth of the BMW cluster in Asia Pacific, Asia, Australia. Recession that has affected businesses in each a part of the planet thrives the BMW Group to keep up with identical level of innovation and performance. The growing competition within the industry with competitors of BMW embrace Mercedes, Audi, Jaguar, Ford, Lexus. The earnings of the BMW cluster are greenback dominated, therefore the increasing strength of monetary unit is another threat for the corporate. In Gregorian calendar month 2007, BMW cluster proclaimed their new strategic direction. By 2020, BMW cluster intends to more strengthen the position of the corporate by increasing volume of sales to over 2 million units in a year.





Apple-Store-Pudong-Shanghai_1Apple’s imaginative innovation, outline and world-class marketing have made loyal clients who have made their items the absolute most notable ever. Be that as it may, there is another viewpoint to Apple’s prosperity – exceptional store network administration. Actually, Apple’s inventory network has been positioned #1 by Gartner, five years in succession. Apple is a logistics achievement, however rehashed yearly achievement doesn’t happen by accident.If there were an application for logistics achievement, Apple would demonstrate the most sizzling download around. The previously stated Gartner positioning represents that Apple has more to offer than extraordinary items. They have exhibited a phenomenal capacity to get their items to showcase rapidly and productively.THESE ARE THE FOUR MAJOR REASON WHY APPLE LOGISTIC IS A BIG SUCESS

¥ Focusing on Doing One Thing Really Well
¥ Technology at Work
¥ Trusted Suppliers
¥ Securing Air Space (Barnes, 2016)


Apple has a fascinating supply chain that is very different from traditional supply chains.
On the advantage side, demand management is easier. Apple doesn’t have to get the demand forecast for a new product right. As long as it underestimates demand for a hot new product, Apple will have loyal customers clamoring for the new devices and willing to wait. In fact, the projected backlog leads customers to line up for hours before stores open to buy a new product. This helps to create marketing buzz.

Since Apple has turned out to be so vast, it has acquisition focal points littler adversaries can’t coordinate. Budgetary examiners are starting to concentrate on Apple’s store network. Samsung lost $10 billion in business sector esteem when Apple put in a tremendous request for glimmer memory with Elpida, securing more than half of that organization’s supply. Apple apparently has value focal points in securing key parts, producing limit, capital gear, and airfreight limit.

Managing new product launches is also more important for a “fashion” manufacturer. The process from design to production launch typically takes 10 months. This includes sourcing, testing, government approvals (like FCC approval for an iPhone), and factory dry runs. For weeks prior to the launch, factories work overtime to build hundreds of thousands of devices. Then they work more overtime to clear the backlogs.(Logistics Viewpoints, 2012)

Apple’s marketing mix involves a holistic approach to distribution, taking advantage of different distribution channels. In general, the company uses a selective distribution strategy, which involves some degree of exclusivity that could limit market reach. Apple authorizes sellers to ensure control over this component of the marketing mix. The following places are included in Apple’s distribution strategy:

Apple Stores
Online Apple Store and App Store
Authorized retailers
Telecom companies
Fulfillment services
Apple Stores are the most noticeable spots that offer the organization’s items. The online Apple Store and App Store are likewise exceedingly noticeable. Be that as it may, these stores are not by any means the only places in the association’s showcasing blend. Case in point, Apple additionally utilizes approved retailers, for example, Walmart, Target and Best Buy. The organization likewise incorporates telecom organizations like AT&T, Verizon, and Sprint, which offer iPhone units. Also, Apple utilizes satisfaction administrations from organizations like Amazon.com and eBay, through which outsiders offer Apple items on the web. Along these lines, Apple’s promoting blend is complete in abusing diverse sorts of online and non-online appropriation channels.(Greenspan, 2015)
Apple’s strategy seems clear: to use the popularity of the iPhone to break back into large corporations, and ultimately have Apple Macs on the desks of large businesses (or more probably – in the laptop bags of middle and senior managers in most large businesses. The Macbook Air is also clearly aimed at this type of market).(Managementparadise.com, 2016)

Reference list

Barnes, R. (2016). 4 Big Reasons Why Apple is a Logistics Success. [online] Web.cds-worldwide.com. Available at: http://web.cds-worldwide.com/blog/4-big-reasons-why-apple-is-a-logistics-success [Accessed 16 May 2016].

Logistics Viewpoints. (2012). The Apple Supply Chain: The Best in the World?. [online] Available at: https://logisticsviewpoints.com/2012/07/02/the-apple-supply-chain-the-best-in-the-world/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].

Greenspan, R. (2015). Apple Inc’s Marketing Mix (4P’s) – Panmore Institute. [online] Panmore Institute. Available at: http://panmore.com/apple-inc-marketing-mix-4ps [Accessed 16 May 2016].

Managementparadise.com. (2016). Distribution Strategy of Apple.Inc – Management Paradise. [online] Available at: http://www.managementparadise.com/forums/elements-logistics/216474-distribution-strategy-apple-inc.html [Accessed 16 May 2016].




The story of Harry Potter on the printed page and massive screen is simply as charming because the story of Harry Potter from a promoting and stigmatization perspective, and it’s one that all marketers and business owners will learn from.
Having gigantic fan base round the globe, Harry Potter’s long trail of books and motion pictures reminds us about its mammoth achievement worldwide and development of a brand in itself. Is it on the grounds that the books and motion pictures were so splendidly composed and pictured or is it something else that made it like that? The answer is the “enchantment of marketing”!! Yes, being rejected by 12 distributes with the principal book to be propelled in the year 1996 and acknowledged by Bloomsbury distributed house, from here, there was no ceasing!!

Whenever J.K. Rowling initially began to compose the Harry Potter books , she knew precisely how the characters and story were going to create. For a considerable length of time, fans asked her how the story was going to end, if Harry was going to pass on, if Snape had faithfulness to Dumbledore or Voldemort. She never let out the slightest peep, yet she told the world that she knew the answers. As an advertiser, it is vital to build up a system. Make objectives, and execute your procedure in light of those objectives. You will find that you will have more accomplishment with a vital methodology from the earliest starting point until the end than you will in the event that you simply make it up as you go.


Harry Potter was a business achievement on account of the showcasing procedures utilized the greater part of the accessible assets likewise referred to in specialized terms as Integrated Marketing Communication(IMC). IMC is the utilization of predictable brand informing crosswise over both conventional and non-customary advertising channels and utilizing distinctive limited time strategies to fortify each other.
Harry potter grew up to be a global phenomenon through word of mouth marketing by consumers.


Integrated Marketing • Unify efforts through consistent communications and messaging. • Surround consumers with branded experiences so they can self-select how they want to interact with or experience the brand. Times Square Jumbotron ads Knight Bus in London The Apprentice Contests. Artificial supply limitations led to massive per-orders. Price discounting, product tie-ins, and promotional discounts at store level for differentiation.

Brand Consistency and restraint • All brand touch points must communicate consistent brand message, image and promise. • J.K. Rowling as brand guardian and brand champion • Brand restraint means not overextending the brand — No Harry Potter on Happy Meals • Less merchandised than many other brands at time such as Shrek and Cars • Limiting brand extensions left fans wanting more and fed into pull marketing/tease and perpetual marketing.

Community development • Communities used to exist on fan sites and at fan events. • Potter mode puts some control back in the hands of the brand by bringing community to branded destination. • Focus on growing relationships and emotional involvement through the Potter more online community and beyond. Postmodernist first 14 days • Potter mode launched with content for the first book only and limited interactivity with a tease of more to come. • First two weeks after Potter mode launched: 22 million visits 7 million unique visitors 1 billion page impressions Average visitor viewed 47 pages .Average visitor spent 25 minutes on the site 5 million people registered 250,000 registered members had been sorted into Hogwarts.

Completing off with some exciting realities about harry potter movies (not a large portion of us know) (Buzz Feed, 2015):
Even then it took the owls six months to learn a way to carry the letters.
The doors at gringos actually work,it took three months to create the door they used for Bellatrix vault.
There was only one steps designed for the flicks.
Many of the portraits on the walls(the moving pictures) in Hogwarts were actual pictures of the solid and crew. For example, one of the portraits has production designer Stuart Craig in it.
All the potions they drank were actually soup.
Every exterior shot of Hogwarts was created victimization a model. It took seven months and 40 folks to create it.


Anon, (2016). [online] Available at: http://Even then it took the owls six months to learn a way to carry the letters. The doors at gringotts actually work,it took three months to create the door they used for bellatrix’s vault. There was only one steps designed for the flicks. Many of the portraits on the walls(the moving pictures) in hogwarts were actual pictures of the solid and crew. For example, one of the portraits has production designer Stuart Craig in it. All the potions they drank were actually soup. Every exterior shot of Hogwarts was created victimization a model. It took seven months and 40 folks to create it. [Accessed 9 May 2016].

Anon, (2016). [online] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/SusanGunelius/harry-potter-the-story-of-a-global-business-phenomeno [Accessed 9 May 2016].

Sprung, R. (2016). 5 Marketing Lessons from Harry Potter. [online] Blog.hubspot.com. Available at: http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/19702/5-Marketing-Lessons-from-Harry-Potter.aspx#sm.00000cipcg1a6re0qwbwkoffql3yv [Accessed 9 May 2016].

Slideshare.net. (2016). Marketing Harry Potter. [online] Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/SusanGunelius/marketing-harry-potter [Accessed 9 May 2016

Better Sound and Better Life

beats-headphones.jpgBeats is one of the biggest company when you talk about sound and music related product company which was established in 2006. Being in a musical related industry Beats mainly focuses on problems such as Piracy on music sales and Substandard quality product. The very first product launched  by Beats was its first Studio Headphones in 2008. In Oct Beats unveiled its two developed products namely Beats Pill and Beats Pill+ to meet the growth in the competitive market. The Beats audio revenue reached up to 1 billion US $ mark when it introduced itself in the market.

Beats tied with HTC in their smart phones and later Beats was acquitted by Apple and its net worth reaches 550 Million US dollars on Forbes. Beats wants the people to hear what the artists hear and listen the music the way they should, this thing makes Beats different from others.
Ammunition are absolutely thrilled that Beats—a business, a brand, a collection of products, and a group of friends that we have put so much of ourselves into—is becoming a part of Apple, arguably one of the world’s greatest companies and certainly the most design-led company of our era.

The world’s most famous headphone has been completely redesigned and reimagined. The new Beats Studio is lighter, sexier, stronger, and more comfortable, with precision sound, Adaptive Noise Canceling, a 20-hour rechargeable battery, and RemoteTalk. It has all the energy and excitement you expect from Beats, plus a powerful, reengineered sound.
Beats audio generally consists of larger amount of bass and generally optimized towards hip hop and pop music. The beat Executive noise cancelling headphones generally compete with Bose and Sennheiser. Along with headphones they also started manufacturing portable speaker and in 2009 HP became to offer personal computers equipped with Beat Audio system. Also, most of HTC new phones began to release their phones with Beat Audio software.
Along with the smartphones it also established audio system in vehicles and also launches Beat Music on 2014 to compete with Spotify and Google Play Store and then it was replaced by apple music in June 2015 and in short that Beats product focuses on quality and function
Instead of being a mere utility for music, though, Beats comes across as more a digital playground, or maybe a nightclub. Its interface, built primarily for mobile use, is full of sleek graphics over a jet-black background, and it is organised in four swipe-able panes that each deliver a constant feed of fresh songs in different ways, tailored to each user.

In the converging world of digital music apps, everybody competes against everybody, and Beats Music’s success depends as much on luring customers away from competitors as it does on the abundance of free music on the Internet.

So far Beats Music application is available only in the United States. But Beats’ major target is Spotify, which was founded in Sweden in 2008 and is now in 55 markets around the world. Spotify has not announced user numbers in almost a year, but a top executive recently told a private music industry gathering in Los Angeles that it has nine million paying subscribers, out of which two million are from the United States, according to a source from the conferences that takes place with launch of any new products or developments.

“Beats By will.i.am: Co-Founding and Cashing In With Jimmy Iovine”.

Billboard.Au.beatsbydre.com. (2016). Beats By Dre | Headphones, Earbuds, Speakers & Accessories. [online] Available at: http://au.beatsbydre.com/home?

“Think Different” – Apple


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Segmentation Targeting and Positioning is a part of marketing strategies, which is used by multinational corporations, business or any other firm to sell out their home products to their customers. Let’s take an example of a company such as Apple, which occupies a large share in today’s gadget and tech market and has bagged the position of one of the most renowned and trusted brands in the world. It also captures the market through segmentation by bringing different products in the worldwide market.

One of the very effective segmentation methods adopted, would be taking a strong consideration of-characteristics of customers. The company keeps in mind its target public and the development of its products depends on their interests and benefits, which gives rise to two different divisions in itself. The most actively used and purchased is the professional range, like:

  • MacBook Pro,
  • iMac,
  • iPhones
  • iPencils

The second division, which is definitely holding its economic importance in the market today, would be its products for its another target audience- Teenagers. They have released several products which have definitely become a craze, not just amongst teenagers but also the tiny tots around them. Products like:

  • iPods
  • iPhones
  • iPads

Apple has been keeping up with its sales and has maintained its market hold by constantly introducing innovations in its base models (third segmentation method), adding more style yet maintaining its classic rich look in anything new it comes up with.

Its third segmentation category, systematic- product related behaviors. Apple products are easy to buy, because of their availability on both virtual and real world markets i.e. ecommerce platforms and brick and mortar stores.

Geographical segmentation has also been their prime focus. We find Apple stores in all populated cities around the globe, with online presence of its official website in 88 countries. The segmentation decisions taken are based on particular criteria, which involves:

  • segmentation size
  • growth of segment
  • current co-position within segment
  • ease of entry into segment
  • number and strength of competitors


The end of the process of segmentation marks the onset of ‘Market Targeting’. Whereas apple has set a target of profitability, their prices are always higher as compared to other renowned competitors in the market. Yet they haven’t ever thought on cutting down the prices.

The ultimate goal or target of the company is to maintain its brand name, by strictly maintaining its quality. Apple has been successfully offering the best computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumer through out the world. The role of positioning is:

  • Strategic & technological vision Positioning
  • Product Development
  • Messaging


Associations that are not unique to the brand they are shared with other brands Category pops: association consumer views as necessary to be considered credible Example, grocery store must have certain products (ex-milk /eggs etc. Competitive pops: association designed to negate competitors point of difference –all toothpaste prevent cavities and Points of parity (pop). The Points of difference are listed below:

  • Strongly favorable, unique brand association
  • Similar to notion of USP- (unique selling proposition)
  • SCA-sustainable competitive advantage (achieve an advantage in the marketplace for a prolonged period of time).


Apple has several worldwide competitors like Samsung, Microsoft, Google and LG. Samsung in particular is the strongest competitor of the company, trying to stay in competition and proving an edge over the brand by introducing new models with minor technological and designer changes. Yet apple has made a profound imprint and maintained its supremacy in the tech market because of its major technological advancements and unique marketing and management strategies.


Apple is an exceptional example of an organization providing excellent segmentation, targeting and positioning models, which are effective for marketing.



Anand, D. (2015). STP(segmentation ,targeting& positioning ) of Apple .. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: http://www.slideshare.net/deepanshua/stpsegmentation-targeting-positioning-of-apple [Accessed 11 Apr. 2016].


Mukul Gupta

student Id – 215316597